What happens at an oil refinery? What is the process that produces crude oil? Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons that are found in the earth’s crust. It is heated to 400 degrees celsius and then passes into fractionating tanks with horizontal trays. As the oil cools, it vapourizes and the lighter components condense back into liquid form. After this process, the oil is ready to be refined into a lighter substance called synthetic fuel.
Crude oil is first processed by distillation, which produces products related to the crude’s characteristics. Next, the products are refined, and hydrotreating, sweetening, and blending operations are used to transform them into more useful forms. Finally, refined oil is subjected to various chemical and separation processes. Refined products are marketed in various markets around the world and used to generate electricity and fuel.
The second step of the process is known as reforming. This process converts the mixture into different products, such as gasoline. The resulting mixture is enriched with different properties, such as high octane, higher vapor pressure, or special properties for use in extreme environments. Finally, the process is called “final treatment,” and the resulting gasoline is sold in gas stations and stores. The octane level and vapor pressure ratings of the gasoline determine the blend.
Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbon compounds. Refineries transform this petroleum into various useful products. To do so, refineries use furnaces, heat exchanges, pumps, tanks, and fractionating columns. The fractionating column is perhaps the most important piece of equipment at an oil refinery. Crude oil undergoes the first dewatering step at the field site, before entering atmospheric distillation units. As the crude oil vaporizes, it condenses back into liquids